Ecology and Resource Management

[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text][/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_tta_tour][vc_tta_section title=”About Us” tab_id=”1474278660943-ff196ea7-2ebf”][vc_column_text]An overview of the Department

The Department of Ecology and Resource Management was established as an anchor for the diverse academic programmes in the School of Environmental Sciences. It offers core modules that all students in the School have to take and pass irrespective of the type of degree being pursued.

Its teaching and research activities are geared towards integrating the geographical, geological, hydrological, planning and ecological perspectives on the environment and its management. Through its teaching and research activities, the Department seeks to impart knowledge and skills, and to develop sound strategies for restoring, sustaining and enhancing environmental quality for sustainable development.

Mission

To take center stage in up-to-date, socially relevant ecological research and to equip its students with all the knowledge and skills they require to be leaders in the field of environmental science and its applications.

Vision

The Department will pursue excellence in ecology and resource management by being a community of critical and imaginative thinkers, well versed in established principles and sound research practices, and up-to-date with the latest developments in our field.[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Programmes” tab_id=”1474278661005-7c7db381-d5db”][vc_column_text]Qualifications offered

  • Bachelor of Environmental Sciences (BEnvSc)
  • Bachelor of Environmental Sciences Honours (BEHERM)
  • Master of Environmental Sciences by Research and Thesis (MEnvSc)
  • Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Sciences (PhD – EnvSc)

 Admission requirements

The minimum admission requirement for the above-mentioned degree programme is as follows:

  • A Matriculation Certificate or Senior Certificate endorsed for university admission.
  • Mathematics, Physical Science and English– 50% on NSC level. Matric passes at D=50% (HG) or C=60% (SG).
  • Life Sciences or Geography- 50% on NSC level. Matric passes at D=50% (HG) or C=60% (SG).

There is a limited number of places and therefore meeting the minimum entry requirement does not guarantee a place. Selection will be based on a student’s M score (the sum of the points) obtained on the basis of results achieved in the matriculation examination. Points are awarded for the six best symbols of the matriculation examination results (including English, Mathematics, Physical Science, Life Science but excluding Life Orientation).[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Modules” tab_id=”1474278805749-4b5dfdfa-f233″][vc_column_text]

CODE MODULE TITLE PREREQUISITES
ERM 1541 The Natural Environment as System  
ERM 1641 Ecology Principles for environmental Management  
ERM 2541 Principles of Resource Management ERM 1541
ERM 2641 Pollution and Environmental Quality ERM 1641
ERM 3541 Resource Evaluation and Information Systems ERM 2541
ERM 3641 Environmental Impact Assessment and Modelling ERM 2641
ERM 5740 Research Methods and Mini-Dissertation ERM 3541
ERM 5541 Land Information Technology ERM 3541
ERM 5542 Pollution Modelling and Control ERM 3541
ERM 5543 Resource and Environmental Economics ERM 3541
ERM 5544 Rangeland Management ERM 3541
ERM 5641 Habitat and Biodiversity Management ERM 3641
ERM 5642 Ecotoxicology ERM 3641
ERM 5643 Energy Resource Management ERM 3641
ERM 5644 Wildlife Management ERM 3641
ERM 6740 Research and Mini-Dissertation  
ERM 6990 Research and Dissertation: ERM 6990  
ERM 7990 Research and Thesis  
[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Projects” tab_id=”1474278739512-181bb642-857d”][vc_column_text]Development and Testing of Novel Metal modified Natural Clay Based Adsorbents for Groundwater defluoridation. Project funded by WRC to train MSc, PhD and Honors Students on synthesis of various adsorbents based on diatomaceous earth, bentonite clay and smectite rich clay soils for defluoridation of groundwater in 2014-2017.

Groundwater defluoridation using metal oxide modified diatomaceous earth and bentonite clay, aluminosilicate and smectite rich clay soils. Project funded by NRF to train MSc, PhD and Honors Students on synthesis of various adsorbents based on diatomaceous earth, bentonite clay and smectite rich clay soils for defluoridation of groundwater in 2014-2016.

Facilities

The Department is in a continuous process of acquiring necessary facilities to support high quality teaching and research activities. At the moment, it has a 60-seater Pollution teaching laboratory and with Pollution research laboratory. These are being equipped. Already a Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry has been donated from Anglo platinum and a Gas chromatography with both flame ionisation detector and electron capture is being purchased. The teaching laboratory is equipped with 8 PCs for students.

Career Prospects

Graduates of Ecology and Resource Management have proved to be marketable. They have been absorbed by:

  • Government Departments of Environmental Affairs and Tourism; Agriculture, Conservation and Land Affairs; Forestry and Water Affairs; Local Government at both National and Provincial levels. Graduates have been employed as far as Springbok in Northern Cape and East London in Eastern Cape. Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Province have so far absorbed the majority of ERM graduates.
  • Private sector and parastatal including mining companies, ESKOM and TELKOM
  • The National Parks Board
  • Local Councils and Municipal Councils
  • Academic and vocational institutions such as Technikons, Technical Colleges, Universities and Southern African Wildlife Colleges.
  • Environmental Consultancy Companies
  • Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) dealing with environmental issues
  • Research Institutions such as the Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Agricultural Research Centre (ARC).
[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Publications” tab_id=”1474278762837-f8bdba03-9872″][vc_column_text]
  1. Ganswindt , A., Tordiffe, A.S.W., Stam, E., Howitt, M.J. & Jori, F. 2012 Determining adrenocortical activity as a measure of stress in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) based on faecal analysis. African Zoology 47: 261-269

 

  1. Foord, S.H., Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S. & Stam, E.M. 2013 Surrogates of spider diversity, leveraging the conservation of a poorly known group in the Savanna Biome of South Africa. Biological Conservation 161: 1-10

 

  1. Muelelwa, M.I., Foord, S.H., Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S. & Stam, E.M. 2010. Towards a standardized and optimized protocol for rapid assessments: spider species richness and assemblage composition in two savanna vegetation types. African Zoology 45: 273-290

 

  1. Dawood, A. & Stam, E.M. 2006. The taxonomic status of the monotypic frog genus Anhydrophryne Hewitt from South Africa: a molecular perspective. South African Journal of Science 102: 249-253

 

  1. Smit, C.E., Stam, E.M., Baas, N., Hollander, R. & Van Gestel, C.A.M. 2004 Effects of dietary zinc exposure on the life history of the parthenogenetic springtail Folsomia candida (Colembola: Isotomidae). Tox. Chem. 23: 1719-1724

 

  1. Stam, E. 2002 Does imbalance in phylogenies reflect only bias? Evolution 56: 1292 – 1295

 

  1. Stam, E., Isaaks, A. & Ernsting, G. 2002 Distant lovers. Indirect sperm transfer and maximisation of reproductive success by male springtails. Insect Behav. 15: 253-268

 

  1. Stam, E. & Hoogendoorn, G. 1999 Indirect sperm transfer and male mating strategies in soil invertebrates. Invertebr. Repr. Dev., 36: 187-189

 

  1. Stam, E., Isaaks, A. & Ernsting, G. 1998 Negative maternal effect revisited: a test on two populations of Orchesella cincta (Collembola: Entomobryidae). Evolution, 52: 1839-1843

 

  1. Stam E. 1996 Temperature responses and physiological time: A comparison of three European populations of Orchesella cincta. Pedobiologia, 41: 88-93

 

  1. Stam E.M., van de Leemkule, M.A. & Ernsting, G. 1996 Trade-offs in the life history and energy budget of the parthenogenetic collembolan Folsomia candida (Willem). Oecologia, 107: 283-292
  2. Stam, E.M. 1998 An evolutionary ecological analysis of reproduction in springtails. PhD-thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.

 

  1. Sinthumule, N.I. (accepted). Multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas: The case of Greater Mapungubwe straddling, Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe, Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series.

 

  1. Sinthumule, N.I. (accepted). Local community disempowerment at the (Trans) frontier in Ramutsindela M., Miescher G., and Boehi M. (eds) The Politics of Nature and Science in Southern Africa, Frankfurt: Interkulturelle Kommunikation/Informationsstelle südliches Afrika.
  2. Sinthumule, N.I. 2015. An evaluation of the performance of tourism at Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa, African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 4(1), 1-13.

 

  1. Munyati, C., & Sinthumule, N. I. (2015, July). Assessing woody vegetation cover dynamics in the Kruger National Park, South Africa: Linking historical aerial photographs and spot imagery. InGeoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2015 IEEE International (pp. 4240-4243).

 

  1. Sinthumule, N.I. & Munyati C. 2014. Quantifying Savanna Woody Cover in the Field and on Historical Imagery: A Methodological Analysis, South African Journal of Geomatics, 3 (2), 113-127.

 

  1. Sinthumule, N.I. & Ramutsindela M. 2014. Bordering the transfrontier: Conservation and borders in transnational context, in Ramutsindela M. (ed), Cartographies of Nature: How nature conservation animates borders, Cambridge Scholar Publishing.

 

  1. Munyati, C. & Sinthumule, N.I. 2014. Cover Gradients and the forest-community frontier: Indigenous forest under communal management at Vondo and Xanthia, South Africa. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 33(8), 757-775.

 

  1. Sinthumule N.I. 2014. Land use change and bordering in the greater Mapungubwe transfrontier conservation area, University of Cape Town, open.uct.ac.za.

 

  1. Munyati, C., & Sinthumule, N. I. 2013. Assessing change in woody vegetation cover in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, using spectral mixture analysis of a Landsat TM image time series.International Journal of Environmental Studies70(1), 94-110.

 

  1. Sinthumule, N.I. 2006. A comparative analysis of the pattern and effects of wetland utilization in urban versus rural areas of Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, International Map Africa Conference Proceeding 20-22, 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa, geospatialworld.net/paper.

 

  1. Masindi, V., Gitari, W. M and Tutu, H. 2015. Adsorption of oxyanions of As, B, Cr, Mo and Se using Fe3+-modified bentonite clay. Journal of Water reuse and desalination. doi: 10.2166/wrd.2015.207

 

  1. Masindi, V., Gitari, W. M. 2015. Removal of arsenic from wastewaters using cryptocrystalline magnesite: complementing experimental results with modelling. Journal of cleaner production. 2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.11.043

 

  1. Masindi, V., Gitari, M. W., Tutu, H. & De Beer, M. 2015. Synthesis of cryptocrystalline magnesite–bentonite clay compositeand its application for neutralization and attenuation of inorganiccontaminants in acidic and metalliferous mine drainage. Journal ofWater process Engineering. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2015.11.007

 

  1. Masindi, W.M. Gitari and K.G. Pindihama (2015): Adsorption of phosphate from municipal effluents using cryptocrystalline magnesite: complementing laboratory results with geochemical modelling, Desalination and Water Treatment, DOI:10.1080/19443994.2015.1110720

 

  1. Vhahangwele Masindi, Mugera Wilson Gitari, Hlanganani Tutu and Marinda De Beer. Passive remediation of acid mine drainage using cryptocrystalline magnesite: A batch experimental and geochemical modelling approach. Water SA Vol. 41 No. 5 October 2015

 

  1. Vhahangwele Masindi, Mugera W. Gitari, Hlanganani Tutu, Marinda DeBeer. Efficiency of ball milled South African bentonite clay for remediation of acid mine drainage. Journal of Water Process Engineering 8 (2015) 227–240.

 

  1. Vhahangwele, G.W. Mugera, The potential of ball-milled South African bentonite clay for attenuation of heavy metals from acidic wastewaters: Simultaneous sorption of Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ ions, J. Environ. Chem. Eng. Vol 3, No 4 (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2015.08.016

 

  1. Anthony A. Izuagie, Wilson M. Gitari & Jabulani R. Gumbo (2015): Defluoridation of groundwater using diatomaceous earth: optimization of adsorption conditions, kinetics and leached metals risk assessment, Desalination and Water Treatment, DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2015.1083894

 

  1. Masindi, V., Gitari, W.M., 2015. Simultaneous removal of metal species from acidic aqueous solutions using cryptocrystalline magnesite/bentonite clay composite: an experimental and modelling approach, Journal of Cleaner Production (2015),http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.128

 

  1. Vhahangwele Masindi, Wilson Mugera Gitari and Tholiso Ngulube. 2015. Kinetics and equilibrium studies for removal of fluoride from underground water using cryptocrystalline magnesite. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination. Vol 5, No 3 IWA Publishing 2015  |  doi:10.2166/wrd.2015.080

 

  1. V Masindi, W.M Gitari & K. G Pindihama 2015. Synthesis of nanocomposite of cryptocrystalline magnesite-bentonite clay and its application for phosphate removal from municipal effluents, Environmental Technology, DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2015.1075598

 

  1. Vhahangwele Masindi, Mugera W. Gitari, Hlanganani Tutu & Marinda Debeer. 2015: Removal of boron from aqueous solution using magnesite and bentonite clay composite, Desalination and Water Treatment, DOI:10.1080/19443994.2015.1025849

 

  1. Akinyemi SA, Akinlua A. Ojo OI, Gitari WM, Akinyeye RO, and Petrik LF. 2015. Mineralogy and Mobility Pattern of Trace Metals in Brine Irrigated Dry Disposed Weathered Coal Fly Ash. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 37:894–905, 2015

 

  1. Vhahangwele Masindi, Mugera W. Gitari, Hlanganani Tutu & Marinda De Beer. 2014. Application of magnesite–bentonite clay composite as an alternative technology for removal of arsenic from industrial effluents: Toxicology and environmental chemistry. pp. 1-17. Volume 96, Issue 10, 2014

 

  1. Masindi Vhahangwele, Gitari W. Mugera and Ngulube Tholiso, 2014. Defluoridation of drinking water using Al3+-modified bentonite clay: Optimization of fluoride adsorption conditions. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. Volume 96, Issue 9, 2014

 

  1. Akinyemi, SA, Adebayo, OF, Ojo AO, Fadibe, OA and Gitari WM. 2014. Geochemistry and minerlogy of the campanian sandstone of Lokoja-Basange Formation, Middle Niger Basin (Lokoja Sub-basin), Nigeria: Implications for provenance, weathering, tectonic setting and paleo-redox conditions. Journal of Natural Sciences Research.Vol.4, No.16, 2014

 

  1. Akinyemi S. A., Ogunniyi S. O., Ojo A. O., Gitari W. M., Momoh A., Akinola O.O., Talabi A.O., Afolagboye L. O., Olaolorun, O. A., Ayodele, O. S. 2014. Mineralogy, Physicochemical Characteristics and Industrial Potential of Some Residual Clay Deposits within Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. Vol.4, No.17, 2014

 

  1. Godfrey Madzivire, Peane P. Maleka, Viswanath R.K. Vadapalli, Wilson M. Gitari, Robert Lindsay, Leslie F. Petrik. 2014. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide. Journal of Environmental Management. 133 12-17

 

  1. M. Gitari 2014. Attenuation of metal species in acidic solutions using bentonite clay: implications for acid mine drainage remediation, Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, Volume 96, Issue 2, February 2014, pages 201-217.

 

  1. Sammy M. Nyale , Chuks P. Eze , Richard O. Akinyeye , Wilson M. Gitari , Segun A. Akinyemi , Olanrewaju O. Fatoba and Leslie F. Petrik. 2014. The leaching behaviour and geochemical fractionation of trace elements in hydraulically disposed weathered coal fly ash, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 49:2, 233-242, DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2013.838929

 

  1. M. Gitari, T. Ngulube, V. Masindi and J.R. Gumbo. 2015. Defluoridation of groundwater using Fe3+-modified bentonite clay: optimization of adsorption conditions. Desalination and Water Treatment, Volume 53, Issue 6, 2015.

 

  1. Akinyemi, S. A., Akinlua, A., Gitari, W. M. Akinyeye, R. O. and Petrik, L. F. 2013. Chemical partitioning and mobility of trace elements in dry disposed weathered ash conditioned with high saline effluents. Coal Combustion and Gasification Products. 5, 57-72, DOI:10.4177/CCGP-D-13-00002.1

 

  1. Madzivire, W. M. Gitari, V. R. K. Vadapalli, L. F. Petrik. 2013. Jet loop reactor application for mine water treatment using fly ash, lime and aluminium hydroxide. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. DOI 10.1007/s13762-013-0417-7

 

  1. Akinyemi, S. A., Adebayo , O. F., Ojo, O. A., Fadipe, O. A., Gitari , W. M. Mineralogy and geochemical appraisal of paleo-redox indicators in Maastrichtian outcrop shales of Mamu Formation, Anambra Basin, Nigeria. 2013. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. ISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online) Vol.3, No.10, 2013.

 

  1. Momoh, T.C. Davies, H.A. Akinsola, S. Akinyemi, S. Mhlongo, W.M. Gitari and G.K. Pindihama. 2013. Human bioaccessibility of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu from consumed Earth materials in Vhembe District, South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, DOI:10.1080/0035919X.2012.755715

 

  1. Gitari, W.M, Petrik, L.F., Key, D.L., Okujeni, C. Inorganic contaminants attenuation in acid mine drainage by fly ash and its derivatives: Column experiments. International Journal of Environment and Pollution. Volume 51, Issue 1-2, 2013, Pages 32-56

 

  1. Grace N. Muriithi, Leslie F. Petrik, Olanrewaju Fatoba, Wilson M. Gitari, Frédéric J. Doucet, Jaco Nel, Sammy M. Nyale, Paul E. Chuks (2013). Comparison of CO2 capture by ex-situ accelerated carbonation and in-situ naturally weathered coal fly ash. Journal of Environmental Management 127 (2013) 212-220

 

  1. O. Fatoba & L. F. Petrik & R. O. Akinyeye & W. M. Gitari & E. I. Iwuoha. 2013. Laboratory Study on the Mobility of Major Species in Fly Ash–Brine Co-disposal Systems: Up-flow Percolation Test. Water Air Soil Pollut (2013) 224:1724.

 

  1. O. Fatoba, L. F. Petrik, R. O. Akinyeye, W. M. Gitari & E. I. Iwuoha. 2013. Long-term brine impacted fly ash. Part 1: chemical and mineralogical composition of the ash residues. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.DOI 10.1007/s13762-013-0439-1

 

  1. O. Fatoba, L. F. Petrik, R. O. Akinyeye, W. M. Gitari & E. I. Iwuoha. 2013. Long-term brine impacted fly ash, Part II: Mobility of major species in the ash Residues. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. DOI 10.1007/s13762-013-0349

 

  1. Fatoba, O. O., Petrik, L. F., Akinyeye, R. O., Gitari, W. M., & Iwuoha, E. I. (2013). Geochemical Partitioning of Major Elements in Brine Impacted Coal Fly Ash Residues. Energy Science and Technology, 5(1), 45-53. Available from: URL: http://www.cscanada.

 

  1. Chuks P. Eze, Sammy M. Nyale, Richard O. Akinyeye, Wilson M. Gitari, Segun A. Akinyemi, Olanrewaju O. Fatoba, Leslie F. Petrik. 2013. Chemical, mineralogical and morphological changes in weathered coal fly ash: A case study of a brine impacted wet ash dump. Journal of Environmental Management. 129 (2013) 479-492

 

  1. Akinyemi, S.A., Gitari, W.M., Akinlua, A., Petrik, L.F. 2013. Chemical Weathering and Mobility of Inorganic Species in dry Disposed Ash: An Insight from Geochemical Fractionation and Physicochemical Analysis. Coal Combustion and Gasification Products 5, 16-30, doi: 10.4177/CCGP-D-12-00005.1

 

  1. Muriithi Nyambura Grace, Gitari Mugera Wilson and Petrik F Leslie. “Statistical testing of input factors in the carbonation of brine impacted fly ash” JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH, PART A (2012) 47, 245–259

 

  1. Viswanath R.K. Vadapalli, Mugera W. Gitari, Leslie F. Petrik, Olivier Etchebers & Annabelle Ellendt (2012). Integrated acid mine drainage management using fly ash, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 47:1, 60-69

 

  1. Akinyemi, S. A., Ojo, O. I., Gitari, W. M., Akinlua, A., Fatoba, O. O., & Petrik, L. F. (2012). Mobility and Transport of Inorganic Species in Weathered Hydraulic Disposed Coal Fly Ash: An Insight from Geochemical Fractionation and Statistical Evaluation. Energy Science and Technology, 3 (1), 10-20.

 

  1. Akinyemi, S. A., Akinlua, A., Gitari, W. M., Nyale, S. M., Akinyeye, R. O., & Petrik, L. F. (2012). An Investigative Study on the Chemical, Morphological and Mineralogical Alterations of Dry Disposed Fly Ash During Sequential Chemical Extraction. Energy Science and Technology, 3(1), 28-37.

 

  1. Nicholas M. Musyoka, Leslie F. Petrik, Wilson M. Gitari, Gillian Balfour and Eric Hums. (2012). Optimization of hydrothermal synthesis of pure phase zeolite Na-P1 from South African coal fly ashes. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A (2012) 47, 337–350

 

  1. A. Akinyemi, A. Akinlua, W.M. Gitari, N. Khuse, P. Eze, R.O. Akinyeye, L.F. Petrik. 2012. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores. Journal of Environmental Management 102, 96-107

 

  1. Musyoka, N. M., Petrik, L. F., Balfour, G., Gitari, W.M and Hums, E. 2011. “Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 46:14, 1699-1707

 

  1. Akinyemi, S. A., Akinlua, A., Gitari, W. M., Akinyeye, R. O., & Petrik, L. F. 2011. A Geochemical Analytical Scheme for the Appraisal of Partitioning and Mobility of Major elements in Weathered Dry Disposed Coal Fly Ash. Energy Science and Technology 2(2), xx-xx. DOI:10.3968/j.est.1923847920110202.109.

 

  1. A. Akinyemi, A. Akinlua, W. M. Gitari and L. F. Petrik. 2011. Mineralogy and mobility patterns of chemical species in weathered coal fly ash. Energy Sources, Part A, 33:768–784.

 

  1. Akinyemi, S. A., Akinlua, A., Gitari, W. M., Akinyeye, R.O., Petrik, L.F. 2011, The Leachability of Major Elements at Different Stages of Weathering in Dry Disposed Coal Fly Ash. Coal Combustion and Gasification Products 3, 28-40, DOI: 10.4177/CCGP-D-11-00005.1
  2. Gitari, M.W., Petrik, L.F., Reynolds, K. (2011). Chemical Weathering in a Hypersaline Effluent Irrigated Dry Ash Dump: An Insight from Physicochemical and Mineralogical Analysis of Drilled Cores. Energy Science and Technology, 2, No. 2, 2011, pp. 0-00 DOI:10.3968/j.est.1923847920110202.110

 

 

  1. Musyoka, N. M., Petrik, L. F., Balfour, G., Ndungu, P., Gitari. W. and Hums, E. “Synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash: application of a statistical experimental design” Res Chem Intermed. DOI: 10.1007/s11164-011-0364-1. 2011

 

  1. Godfrey Madzivire, Wilson M. Gitari, V.R. Kumar Vadapalli, Tunde V. Ojumu, Leslie F. Petrik. 2011. Fate of sulphate removed during the treatment of circumneutral mine water and acid mine drainage with coal fly ash: Modelling and experimental approach. Miner. Eng. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.mineng.2011.07.009

 

  1. Ojo O. Fatoba, Leslie F. Petrik, Wilson M. Gitari & Emmanuel I. Iwuoha (2011): Fly ash-brine interactions: Removal of major and trace elements from brine, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 46:14, 1648-1666.

 

  1. Nicholas M. Musyoka, Leslie F. Petrik, Gillian Balfour, Wilson M. Gitari & Eric Hums (2011): Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 46:14, 1699-1707.

 

  1. Muriithi Grace Nyambura; Gitari Mugera Wilson; Petrik Leslie Felicia and Ndungu Patrick Gathura, “Carbonation of brine impacted fractionated coal fly ash: Implications for CO2 sequestration” Journal of Environmental Management, 92 (2011) 655-664.

 

  1. M. Gitari, L. F Petrik, D. L Key and C. Okujeni. 2011. Interaction of Acid Mine Drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended Solid Residues generated from active treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Coal Fly Ash. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A (2011) 46, 117–137

 

  1. Vadapalli VRK, Gitari WM, Ellendt A, Petrik LF, Balfour G. Synthesis of zeolite-P from coal fly ash derivative and its utilisation in mine-water remediation. S Afr J Sci. 2010; 106(5/6), Art. #231, 7 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i5/6.231.

 

  1. Gitari, W. M.; Leslie, F. P.; Key, D. L.; Okujeni, C., (2010). Partitioning of major and trace inorganic contaminants in fly ash-acid mine drainage derived solid residues. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 7 (3), Summer 2010. ISSN: 1735-1472.

 

  1. Godfrey Madzivire, Leslie F. Petrik, Wilson M. Gitari, Tunde V. Ojumu, Gillian Balfour.2010 Application of coal fly ash to circumneutral mine waters for the removal of sulphates as gypsum and ettringite. Minerals Engineering 23, 252-257.
  2. R. Kumar Vadapalli, W.M.Gitari, A.Ellendt, L.F.Petrik, and G. Balfour.2010. Synthesis of Zeolite P from Fly Ash Derivative and its Utilization in Mine Water Remediation. S Afr J Sci. Vol 106, No 5/6 2010: May/June

 

  1. M. Gitari, L. F Petrik, D. L Key and C. Okujeni. 2010. Utilization of fly ash for treatment of coal mines waste water: Partitioning of major and trace inorganic contaminants in the resulting solid residues. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 7 (3), 519-534, Summer 2010.

 

  1. M. Gitari, A. M. Kinyua, G. N. Kamau and C. K. Gatebe. 2010. Elemental composition of suspended particulate matter collected at two different heights above the ground in a sub-urban site in Kenya. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Science and management, Vol.3 No.3 2010.

 

  1. M. Gitari, O.O. Fatoba, L.F. Petrik and V.R. Kumar Vadapalli. 2009. Leaching Characteristics of Selected South African Fly Ashes: Effect of pH on the release of Major and Trace Species. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part-A, Vol A 44, No 2.

 

  1. O. Fatoba, WM Gitari and LF Petrik. 2008. Factors controlling the release of species from South African coal fly ashes to the Environment. Geochimica et al Cosmochimica Acta Supplement, vol 72, issue 2, pg A259

 

  1. M. Gitari, L.F. Petrik, O. Etchebers, D.L Key, E. Iwuoha and C. Okujeni. 2008. Passive neutralisation of acid mine drainage by fly ash and its derivatives: A column leaching study. Fuel. 2008. 87: 1637-1650.

 

  1. M. Gitari, L.F. Petrik, O. Etchebers, D.L Key, E. Iwuoha and C. Okujeni. 2008. Utilization of Fly Ash for Treatment of coal mines waste water: Solubility controls on major inorganic contaminants. Fuel 87: 2450–2462.

 

  1. R.Kumar Vadapalli, Klink, M.J., Petrik, L.F., Etchebers, O., Gitari, M.W., White, R., Burgers, C., Key, D. and E. Iwuoha., 2008. Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage using Fly Ash and Strength Development of the Resulting Solid Residues. South African Journal of Science. 104: 317-322.

 

  1. W. Gitari, L.F. Petrik, O. Etchebers, D.L Key, E. Iwuoha and C. Okujeni. 2006. Treatment of acid mine drainage with fly ash: Removal of major contaminants and trace elements. Journal of Environmental Science and Health-Part A., A41 (8): 1729-47

 

  1. N Steyn, J.E Crafford, S.vdM.Louw and S.R Gliessman.2014. The potential use of cover crops for building soil quality and as trap crops for stinkbugs in sub-tropical fruit orchards: Knowledge gaps and research needs. Afr. J. Agric. Res.Vol.9(19), pp. 1522-1529.

 

  1. Taylor P. J, Mkhari D, Mukwevho T, Monadjem A, Schoeman M. C, Steyn J. N. 2011. Bats as potential biocontrol agents in an agricultural landscape, Levubu Valley: diet, activity and species composition of bats in macadamia orchards and neighbouring natural habitats. South African avocado growers’ association yearbook. Vol 34, pp. 54-64.

 

  1. J Taylor, A Monadjem and J.N Steyn. 2013. Seasonal patterns of habitat use by insectivorous bats in a subtropical African agro-ecosystem dominated by macadamia orchards. African Journal of Ecology. Volume 51, Issue 4, pp. 552–561.

 

  1. J Taylor, K Bohmann, J.N Steyn, M.C Schoeman, E Matamba, M.L Zepeda-Mendoza, T Nangammbi and M.T.P Gilbert. 2013. Bats eat pest green vegetable stink bugs (Nezara viridula): Diet analyses of seven insectivorous species of bats roosting and foraging in macadamia orchards. Southern African Macadamia Growers’ Association Yearbook. Vol 21, pp.45-52.

 

  1. N Steyn. 2012. The potential use of trap cops and habitat manipulation for stink bug pest control in macadamia orchads. Southern African Macadamia Growers’ AssOCIATION Yearbook. Vol 20, pp 39-

 

  1. Taylor P. J, Nemudivhiso P, Mphethe V, Murida T, Monadjem A, Schoeman M. C, Schoeman CSteyn J. N. 2012. Bats as biocontrol agents in macadamia orchards, Levubu Valley, Limpopo Province. South African avocado growers’ association yearbook. Vol 20, pp. 46-

 

  1. Taylor P.J and Steyn P.J. (2014). Ewperspectives in demonstrating biological control and management of pest insects by bats in macadamia orchads. South African avocado growers’ association yearbook. Vol 22, pp. 8-

 

  1. Schoeman S.P, Roets N.J.R and Steyn J.N. (2014). Calibrating macadamia irrigation using midday stem xylem water potential and plant physiological parameters. South African avocado growers’ association yearbook. Vol 22, pp. 21-

 

 

 

 

Publications in refereed proceedings

 

  1. Masindi V, Gitari WM, Tutu, H and De Beer Marinda. 2015. Synthesis of a porous magnesite-bentonite clay composite and its application for neutralization of inorganic contaminants in acidic and metalliferrous mine drainage. 5th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT 2015 (ICENV 2015), EASTIN HOTEL, PENANG, MALAYSIA, 18-19 AUGUST 2015

 

  1. Masindi V, Gitari WM, Tutu, H and De Beer Marinda. 2015.Treatment of acid mine drainage using cryptocrystalline magnesite: An experimental and geochemical modelling approach. 4th YWP-ZA Biennial conference and 1st Africa-wide YWP conference. 16 – 18 November 2015: CSIR International Conference Centre.

 

  1. Ngulube T, Gitari WM and Hlanganani T. 2015. Defluoridation of groundwater using mixed mukondeni clay soils. Accepted for Poster presentation at 4th YWP – ZA Biennial Conference and 1st Africa – wide YWP Conference. 16 – 18 November 2015 Venue: CSIR International Conference Centre.

 

  1. Masindi V, Gitari WM, Tutu, H and De Beer Marinda. 2015. Fate of inorganic contaminants post treatment of acid mine drainage with cryptocrystalline magnesite. CSIR. Pretoria

 

  1. Masindi V, Gitari W.M, Tutu H, DeBeer M. Removal of selenium from wastewater using magnesite and bentonite clay composite: Equilibrium and kinetics studies. The IAFOR North American Conference on Sustainability, Energy & the Environment NACSEE2014. 11-14 Sept 2014. Providence Marriott Downtown, Providence, RI, United States.

 

  1. Masindi V, Gitari, W.M; Tutu, H; De Beer, M; Nekhwevha N. 2014.. Neutralization and Attenuation of heavy metals in Acid Mine Drainage and mine leachates using Magnesite: A batch experimental approach. A conference proceedings, Inter-Disciplinary Responses to Mine Water Challenges 12th IMWA congress 2014, CUMT, Xuzhou, China.17th-22nd August 2014.

 

  1. Gitari WM, Petrik LF, Muriithi GN, 2014. Carbon dioxide capture at Coal Combustion Point Sources using waste brine Effluents: Conceptual Approach and Experimental Results. 2nd Laikipia University International Conference, African Universities: Crisis, Transformation and Opportunities, 20th -23rd May 2014, Laikipia University, Main Campus, Kenya

 

  1. W M Gitari, M Vhahagwele, T 2013. Al3+-Modified Bentonite clay for defluoridation of groundwater: Optimization of adsorption conditions. 14th WaterNet/WARFSA/GWP-SA Conference. Building Partnerships and Strengthening Cooperation for Integrated Water Resources Management in Eastern and Southern Africa. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 30th October-1st November 2013

 

  1. WM Gitari, Ngulube T, Masindi V and JR Gumbo. 2013. Natural Clay based adsorbent for defluoridation of groundwater: Optimization of adsorption conditions. DELIVERING WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE SERVICES IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT. 36th WEDC International Conference, Nakuru, Kenya, 2013. Available online

 

  1. Godfrey Madzivire, Wilson M. Gitari, V.R. Kumar Vadapalli and Leslie F. Petrik. 2012. Application of a jet loop reactor to enhance removal of sulphates from mine water using coal fly ash, lime and Al(OH)3. International Mine Water Association conference in Perth Australia.

 

  1. Muriithi GN, Gitari MW, Petrik LF. 2011. Carbonation of brine slurried size fractionated coal combustion fly ash. A paper presented at the 2011 World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference held in May 9-12, 2011 in Denver, Colorado, USA, worldofcoalash.com.

 

  1. Gitari W.M, Kaseke C, Nkuzani B B. 2011. Passive Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage using Bentonite clay: A Laboratory batch experimental study. A paper accepted for presentation at the International Mine Water Association Conference in Aachen, Germany on 5-8th Sept 2011.

 

  1. Misheer, Natasha; Madzivire, G; Gitari, W.M; Ojumu, T.V; Balfour, G; Petrik, L.F 2010: Removal of sulphates from South African mine water using coal fly ash. – In: Wolkersdorfer, Ch. & Freund, A.: Mine Water & Innovative Thinking. – p. 151 – 155; Sydney, Nova Scotia (CBU Press).

 

  1. Sammy M. Nyale, Richard O. Akinyeye, Wilson M. Gitari, Leslie F. Petrik. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of fine coal ash co-disposed with brine at a coal fired power station in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. The International Conference on Analytical Sciences (Analitika 2010), University of Stellenbosch, 5th – 9th December, 2010.

 

  1. Sammy M. Nyale, Richard O. Akinyeye, Wilson M. Gitari, Leslie F. Petrik. Investigation of the mineralogy, weathering patterns and chemical mobility in coal fly ash co-disposed with brine from a 20 year old ash dam at a coal fired power station in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. The 15th Southern African conference on Coal, Carbon and Energy Technology, 17th – 18th November, 2010 at Glenhove Conference Centre, Rosebank, Johannesburg, South Africa

 

  1. Gitari, Wilson Mugera; Petrik, Leslie Petrik; Key, David Key; Okujeni, Charles 2010: Inorganic contaminants attenuation in acid mine drainage by fly ash and its derivatives: Column Experiments. – In: Wolkersdorfer, Ch. & Freund, A.: Mine Water & Innovative Thinking. – p. 233 – 237; Sydney, Nova Scotia (CBU Press)

 

  1. Leslie Petrik, Wilson Gitari and Frederic Doucet. Mineral carbonation of a fly ash/brine system. Proceedings of the Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering (ACEME 10) 29th November to 1st December 2010, Finland.

 

  1. F. Petrik, W. M. Gitari, T.V. Ojumu and G. Balfour. Optimization of the ettringite precipitation method for sulphate removal using coal fly ash. Proceedings of the International mine water Conference, 19 – 23 October 2009. Pretoria, South Africa, CSIR International Convention Centre.

 

  1. OO Fatoba, A, Gitari WM, Nyamihingura, Petrik LF, VR Kumar Vadapalli, J Nel, A October, L Dlamini, Gericke Gerhard, Mahlaba JS. Chemical weathering in a dry ash dump: An insight from physicochemical and mineralogical analysis of drilled cores. Word of coal ash symposium, science, application and sustainability, may 4-7 2009, Lexington, convention center, Kentucky USA.

 

  1. M. Gitari, L.F. Petrik and E.I. Iwuoha. 2009. Fly ash-brine interactions: The interaction chemistry and its effect on brine quality. International Conference on Coal Science & Technology (ICCS&T), 26 to 29 October 2009. Cape Town, South Africa.

 

  1. F. Petrik, W. M. Gitari, T.V. Ojumu and G. Balfour. 2009. Optimization of the ettringite precipitation method for sulphate removal using coal fly ash. International Conference on Coal Science & Technology (ICCS&T), 26 to 29 October 2009. Cape Town, South Africa

 

  1. F Petrik, W.M Gitari, O. Etchebers, J. Nel, V.R. Kumar Vadapalli, O. Fatoba, A. Nyamihingura, S.A, Akinyemi and M.J, Antonie. 2008. “Towards the development of Sustainable Salt Sinks: Fundamental Chemical Studies”,10th International Mine Water Association Congress, Mine Water and the Environment, Karlovy Vary 2-6th June 2008.

 

  1. Misheer, A.Ellendt, L.F.Petrik, N.Hendricks, W.M.Gitari. 2008. Toxic Element Removal from Acid Mine Drainage using Zeolites synthesized from Fly Ash derivative. Proceedings of the International Coal Conference,September 29 – October 2, Pittsburgh, USA

 

  1. Gitari WM, L. F Petrik, O.Etchebers, D. L Key and C. Okujeni. 2008. Acid neutralization mechanisms and contaminants attenuation trends in acid mine drainage by fly ash and its derivatives: A laboratory column leaching study. WISA 2008 Biannual conference; the confluence of water industry. Suncity, South Africa, 18-22 May 2008.

 

  1. M. Gitari, L. F Petrik, O. Etchebers, D. L Key, E.Iwuoha and C. Okujeni 2007. Acidity attenuation in acid mine drainage by fly ash and its derivatives: A column leaching study International Water Association (IWA) Specialist conference “facing sludge diversities challenges, risks, and opportunities. 28-30 march 2007 Belek -Antalya, Turkey

 

  1. Petrik, M.W.Gitari, V.R.Kumar Vadapalli, O.Etchebers, A.Ellendt, K.Reynolds, D.Surender, N.Hendricks, M.J.Klink, V.S.Somerset, R.A.White, C.Burgers, D.L.Key and E.I.Iwouha. 2006: Applications of ash and its derivates: water treatment, mine backfilling, lining and walling. 13th International Conference Ashes from Power Generation, 6-8 November, Krakow, Poland

 

  1. Leslie Petrik, Annabelle Ellendt, Nicollete Hendricks, Wilson Gitari and Olivier Etchebers. 2006. Synthesis of Zeolites at Low and High Temperature Using Solid Residues from the Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage with Fly Ash. International symposium on Zeolites and Microporous crystals. Organized by Japan Association of Zeolite. Yonago, Tottori Pref., Japan July 31-August 2(2006).

 

  1. Leslie Petrik, Annabelle Ellendt, Nicollete Hendricks, Wilson Gitari and Olivier Etchebers. 2006. Treatment of Mine Effluent with Zeolite Synthesized from solid Residues Resulting from the Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage with Fly Ash. International Symposium on Zeolites and Microporous crystals. Organized by Japan Association of Zeolite. Yonago, Tottori Pref., Japan July 31-August 2(2006)

 

  1. Gitari WM, L.F. Petrik, O. Etchebers, D.L Key, E. Iwuoha and C. Okujeni. 2006. Passive Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage with Fly Ash Blended Solid Residues: An Insight into the Contaminants-attenuating Mechanisms and Strength Development. Proceedings of the International Conference on Coal Ash. CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria, South Africa 2-4 Oct 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

Publications/contribution to book chapter

 

  1. A. Akinyemi, W. M. Gitari, A. Akinlua and L.F. Petrik. 2012. Mineralogy and geochemistry of sub-bituminous coal and its combustion products from Mpumalanga province, South Africa: In “Analytical Chemistry”, 2012. ISBN 980-953-307-199-7. In: “Analytical Chemistry” (ISBN 978-953-51-0837-5). Rijeka: InTech; 2012. Chapter 2, 47-70. http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/mineralogy-and-geochemistry-of-sub-bituminous-coal-and-its-combustion-products-from-mpumalanga-provi

 

Technical Reports

 

  1. Gitari WM, TAM Msagati, AA Izuagie, T Ngulube and M Rabelani. 2014-2015. Development and Testing of Novel Metal modified Natural Clay based Adsrobents for Groundwater Defluoridation. Project No K5/2363//3. Deliverable 1: Literature Review, Deliverable 2: Characterization of adsorbents and modification of the bentonite clay and diatomaceous earth with metal cations. Reports to Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa

 

  1. Petrik L.F, C. Burgers, W. M. Gitari, D. Surender, K. Reynolds, A. Ellendt, O. Etchebers, R. Vadapalli, D.L. Key and E. Iwuoha. 2005. Final Report. WRC K5/1458//3 collaboration with COALTECH 2020 (Task 6.1.6). Stability and neutralization capacity of potential mine backfill material formed by co-disposal of fly ash and acid mine drainage. A report to Water Research Commission.

 

 

  1. Petrik, W. M Gitari, O.Etchebers, J.Nel, V.R. Kumar Vadapalli, O. Fatoba, A.Nyamihingura, S. A. Akinyemi and M. J. Antonie 2007. Towards the Development of Sustainable Salt Sinks: Fundamental Studies on the Co-Disposal of Brines within Inland Ash Dams. 2nd Sasol/Eskom project interim report, South Africa.

 

  1. Petrik, W. M Gitari, O.Etchebers, J.Nel, V.R. Kumar Vadapalli, O. Fatoba, A.Nyamihingura, S. A. Akinyemi and M. J. Antonie 2007. Towards the Development of Sustainable Salt Sinks: Fundamental Studies on the Co-Disposal of Brines within Inland Ash Dams. 3rd Sasol/Eskom project interim report, South Africa.

 

 

  1. Petrik, W. M Gitari, O.Etchebers, J.Nel, V.R. Kumar Vadapalli, O. Fatoba, A.Nyamihingura, S. A. Akinyemi and M. J. Antonie 2007. Towards the Development of Sustainable Salt Sinks: Fundamental Studies on the Co-Disposal of Brines within Inland Ash Dams. 4th and final Sasol/Eskom project interim report, South Africa.

 

  1. Petrik, W. M Gitari, O.Etchebers, J.Nel, V.R. Kumar Vadapalli, O. Fatoba, A.Nyamihingura, S. A. Akinyemi and M. J. Antonie 2007. Towards the Development of Sustainable Salt Sinks: Fundamental Studies on the Co-Disposal of Brines within Inland Ash Dams. 5th and final Sasol/Eskom project interim report, South Africa.
[/vc_column_text][/vc_tta_section][vc_tta_section title=”Staff” tab_id=”1474278777597-b2b4961b-6375″][persons photo=”3397″ name=”Dr. EM Stam” job=”Senior Lecturer (HOD)”]Qualification: MSc (Univeristy of Amsterdam), PhD (Free University, Amsterdam)

Specialization: Ecology, Population biology, Ecohydrology, Biodiversity

Tel: +27 15 962 8562
Email: ed.stam@univen.ac.za[/persons][persons photo=”2418″ name=”Prof. WM Gitari” job=”Senior Lecturer “]Qualification: Certificate in Project Management: University of Stellenbosch (South Africa), PhD : University of the Western Cape (South Africa), MSc (pure and applied chemistry): University of Nairobi (Kenya), Bed (Sc) (Maths and Chem): Kenyatta University (Kenya)

Specialization: Applied Environmental/Remediation Chemistry, Applied inorganic Chemistry/Analytical Chemistry, Applied geochemistry and Waste management.

Tel: +27 15 962 8572
Email: Mugera.gitari@univen.ac.za[/persons][persons photo=”2420″ name=”Dr.NI Sinthumule” job=”Senior Lecturer “]Qualification: B.Envsc (Hons)(University of Venda), M.Envsc (Ecology and Resource Management) (University of Venda) and PhD (Conservation)(UCT)

Specialization: Transfrontier conservation areas, People-environment interactions, Land and resource rights, GIS and remote sensing

Tel: +27 15 962 8574
Email: innocent.sinthumule@univen.ac.za[/persons][persons photo=”2422″ name=”Mr JN Steyn” job=”Lecturer “]Qualification: B.Sc.Agric (UFS), Wildlife Management (Hons.)(UP) and Msc. Env.Management (UFS)

Specialization: Agroecology

Tel: +27 15 962 8594
Email:  jnsteyn@univen.ac.za[/persons][persons photo=”2424″ name=”Mr R Mulaudzi” job=”Lecturer “]Qualification: Benvsc (Hons) (University of Venda),  BA development studies (Hons)(UNISA) and MEnvsc (University of Venda)

Specialization: Pollution and Waste Management, Environmental Rehabilitation, Environmental Management system and auditing.

Tel: +27 15 962 8074
Email:  ratshi.mulaudzi@univen.ac.za[/persons][persons photo=”3752″ name=”MUKUNDI MUKUNDAMAGO” job=”Lecturer “]Qualification: Bachelor of environmental management(univen), Bsc Honours in Biodiversity& Ecology (stellebosh University), Msc in Conservation Ecology (Stellebosh University)

Specialization: Conservation Ecology, Zoology , Entonology , Invasion Biology, Seed Science.

Tel: +27 15 962 8074
Email: mukundi.mukundamago@univen.ac.za

Office: G09, School of Environmental Sciences[/persons][persons photo=”3398″ name=”Florance Murungweni” job=”Lecturer “]Qualification: Msc (University of Twente), GIS Diploma, Diploma (Cartography)(Harare), BAC (Geography and Environmental Studies).

Specialization: Conservation Ecology, Zoology, Entonology, Invasion Biology, Seed Science.

Tel: +27 15 962 8074
Email: mukundi.mukundamago@univen.ac.za

Office: G103, School of Environmental Sciences[/persons][/vc_tta_section][/vc_tta_tour][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_wp_custommenu nav_menu=”80″ title=”Departments”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text][lastupdated][/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

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