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Overview

The Department of Microbiology at the University of Venda began as a degree option in the combined Biochemistry and Microbiology Department in 1996 and during 1999 the Department of Microbiology was established as a fully fledged Department on its own. The Department of Microbiology now offers combined degrees with Biochemistry, Botany, Chemistry and Zoology in the School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences.

The Department of Microbiology has 2 Undergraduate teaching labs for second and third year practical training sessions. The Department also has 6 well equipped and very active research laboratories to train post graduate students from Honours to post doctoral level. The Microbiology Department strives to ensure the impact of knowledge onto students and community members with regards to the impact which microorganisms have on their environment and general well being.

The Department of Microbiology also strives to provide opportunities for students to obtain the highest qualification offered. The Department provides excellent teaching, research and community interactions. Emphasis is placed on the following aspects:

    1. Developing a conducive environment for studying and research purposes in the field of Microbiology focusing on clinical/health, epidemiology, food, industrial, molecular biology and environmental microbiology aspects

    2. Regular self and peer evaluations to improve staff and student achievements

    3. Promoting inter-relationships between staff and students by recognizing the fundamental rights of the individual

    4. The Department of Microbiology believes in synergetic collaboration to promote its research at local, national and international levels.

Strategic objectives include:

    1. Teaching – The department provides quality training both for undergraduate and post graduate students in all relevant fields of Microbiology to teach students how to solve and assess potential problems related to the rural and peri urban communities surrounding the University.

    2. Research – The department focus on relevant natural and international problems related to the field of Microbiology and to develop strong collaboration with national and international Universities and research Institutions to solve national and international problems.

    3. Community Engagement – The department strives to engage, to advice, to consult, to teach and to inform the communities surrounding the University to solve relevant problems.

Qualifications in Microbiology

BSc Bachelor of Science with Microbiology as major
BSc (Hons): Bachelor of Science Honours degree (Microbiology)
MSc Master of Science degree (Microbiology)
PhD Doctor of Philosophy degree (Microbiology)

Modules     

The Department of Microbiology offers modules on different aspects relating the role of microorganisms in health, environmental, food and industrial processes.

Undergraduate modules

 All undergraduate modules in the Department of Microbiology start at second year level. In addition to school requirements for admission, candidates wishing to study Microbiology must have passed specified modules at first year level in Biology and Chemistry as specified in the following table :

 

MODULES PRE-REQUISITES
MBY 2521(Bacteriology) BIO 1541, CHE 1540 and CHE 1621 or CHE 1622
MBY 2522 (Immunology) BIO 1541, CHE 1540 and CHE 1621 or CHE 1622
MBY 2623 (Environmental Microbiology) BIO 1541, CHE 1540 and CHE 1621 or CHE 1622
MBY 2624 (Virology) BIO 1541, CHE 1540 and CHE 1621 or CHE 1622
MBY 3526 (Food Microbiology) Any 3 of MBY 2521, 2522, 2623, 2624
MBY 3527 (Industrial Microbiology) Any 3 of MBY 2521, 2522, 2623, 2624
MBY 3628 (Mycology and Phycology) Any 3 of MBY 2521, 2522, 2623, 2624
MBY 3629 (Parasitology) Any 3 of MBY 2521, 2522, 2623, 2624

Students majoring in Microbiology must successfully complete MBY 2521, MBY 2522, MBY 2623, MBY 2624, MBY 3526, MBY 3527, MBY 3628 and MBY 3629.

Module descriptors for the under-graduate curriculum as follows:

Year 2 Modules

Module MBY 2521 - Bacteriology
Semester 1st
Credits 10
Pre-requisites BIO 1541, CHE 1540 and CHE 1621 OR CHE 1622
Assessment criteria: Tests 2
Assessment criteria: Assignments 1-2
Assessment criteria: Practical sessions As per practical manual
Assessment criteria: Seminars 1-2
Module Content Historical perceptive of Microbiology. Characteristics of different groups of microorganisms. Bacteriology: General structure of bacteria, Functions of the different bacterial organelles, Shapes of bacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria groups. Factors affecting bacterial growth, Bacterial growth curves. Bacterial nutrition, Bacterial metabolism, Bacterial genetics, Bacterial chemotherapy. Mechanisms and modes of spread of bacterial infections.  


Module MBY 2522 - Immunology
Semester 1st
Credits 10
Pre-requisites BIO 1541, CHE 1540 and CHE 1621 OR CHE 1622
Assessment criteria: Tests 2
Assessment criteria: Assignments 1-2
Assessment criteria: Practical sessions As per practical manual
Assessment criteria: Seminars 1-2
Module Content This module introduces the student to the basic concepts, components and functions of the vertebrate immune system; Innate immunity, Acquired immunity. Cells and tissues of the immune system. Classification. Structure and properties of antibodies. Concepts of antigen and antigenicity. Immunogen and immunogenicity. Haptens. Adjuvants. Human leucocyte antigens. Antigen antibody reactions. Definitions of tolerance. Autoimmunity. Immunodeficiencies. Hypersensitivity and immunossuppression. Principles of immunization, EPA in South Africa. Immunotherapy, Immunoprophylaxis. Bacterial/viral/parasitic/fungal immunity.  


Module MBY 2623 – Environmental Microbiology
Semester 2nd
Credits 10
Pre-requisites BIO 1541, CHE 1540 and CHE 1621 OR CHE 1622
Assessment criteria: Tests 2
Assessment criteria: Assignments 1-2
Assessment criteria: Practical sessions As per practical manual

Assessment criteria: Seminars

1-2
Module Content Microorganisms in the various environments: viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoans, helminths. Soil classification, characteristics of microorganisms in the soil environment, microbial activities in soil/Soil borne pathogens. Role of microorganisms in nutrient/ biogeochemical cycles. Microbial interactions. Microorganisms in the aquatic environment. Water and food borne pathogens. Indicator organisms. Domestic waste and waste treatment. Drinking water treatment and distribution. Microbiological standards/criteria for water quality control. Airborne pathogens/toxins, bioaerosols and their control, microbial survival in the air. Beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms in Agriculture. Bioremediation. Biofilms. Microbial corrison/ biofilms. Environmental sample sample collection specific methods for the isolation of pathogens from stools,food,water,air and soil. Introduction to molecular techniques. Pollution factors. 


Module MBY 2624 - Virology
Semester 2nd
Credits 10
Pre-requisites BIO 1541, CHE 1540 and CHE 1621 OR CHE 1622
Assessment criteria: Tests 2
Assessment criteria: Assignments 1-2
Assessment criteria: Practical sessions As per practical manual
Assessment criteria: Seminars 1-2
Module Content Nature and general characteristics of viruses Structure and classification of viruses. Chemical composition of viruses. Viral susceptibility to chemical and physical agents. Cultivation of viruses/Growth and detection of viruses in the laboratory. Viral cell interactions-lytic, steady and integrated state. Viral replication. Host responses to viral infections and outcome of viral infections. Viral genetics, viral interference and interferons. Virus infections and viral chemotherapy. Animal and plant viruses.


Year 3 Modules

Module MBY 3526 – Food Microbiology
Semester 1st
Credits 14
Pre-requisites Any 3 of MBY 2525, MBY 2522, MBY 2623, MBY 2624
Assessment criteria: Tests 2
Assessment criteria: Assignments 1-2
Assessment criteria: Practical sessions As per practical manual
Assessment criteria: Seminars 1-2
Module Content Roles and significance of microorganisms in food. Incidence and types of bacteria, molds and yeasts, viruses, parasites in meat, seafood and vegetables, dairy products, delicatessen and related products, frozen foods, dehydrated foods. Intrinsic and extrinisic parameters of food that affect microbial growth. Food spoilage- fruit and vegetables, fresh processed meat, poultry and sea food, dairy products, canned foods, beers/wines/fermented foods, sugars/candies. Food preservation- with chemical/irradiation, with low temperatures/high temperatures, with drying/fermentation. Microbial standards and criteria for food safety. Guidelines for different foods (National and International). Indicators for food sanitary quality. Determination of microorganisms in food: culture sampling methods, microscopic method, physical method, chemical method, immunological methods, bioassay, cell culture system. Factors affecting microbial growth in food. Food borne infections and food intoxications-aetiology, transmission, pathogenesis, epidemiology and control of food and water borne diseases. Quality assurance of food.


Module MBY 3527 – Industrial Microbiology
Semester 1st
Credits 14
Pre-requisites Any 3 of MBY 2525, MBY 2522, MBY 2623, MBY 2624
Assessment criteria: Tests 2
Assessment criteria: Assignments 1-2
Assessment criteria: Practical sessions As per practical manual
Assessment criteria: Seminars 1-2

Module Content

This module introduces students to the broad application of microorganisms in industrial processes: Essentials of DNA technology and genetic engineering. Biodiversity; Economics of industrial processes. Metabolism and regulation of metabolism; Nutrient supply; Application of microbes in the production of enzymes, alcoholic beverages, antibiotics, and proteins; Concepts of biofilm, Bioremediation, and Microbial corrosion. Plant biotechnology.


Module MBY 3628 – Mycology and Phycology
Semester 2nd
Credits 14
Pre-requisites Any 3 of MBY 2525, MBY 2522, MBY 2623, MBY 2624
Assessment criteria: Tests 2
Assessment criteria: Assignments 1-2
Assessment criteria: Practical sessions As per practical manual
Assessment criteria: Seminars 1-2
Module Content Structure and features of fungi and algae. Classification of fungi. Fungal cells growth and reproduction/Life cycle of fungi. Role of fungi and algae in nature and human life; Fungal diseases of humans, plants and animals. Importance of fungi in agriculture. Industrial uses of fungi. Diagnostics of fungal infections. Mycotoxins. Antifungal agents.


Module MBY 3629 - Parasitology
Semester 2nd
Credits 14
Pre-requisites Any 3 of MBY 2525, MBY 2522, MBY 2623, MBY 2624
Assessment criteria: Tests 2
Assessment criteria: Assignments 1-2
Assessment criteria: Practical sessions As per practical manual
Assessment criteria: Seminars 1-2
Module Content Introduction to parasites. Classification of parasites. Structure and features of protozoan. Life cycle patterns of protozoan. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of protozoa diseases. Host-parasite relationship/immune response to parasitic infections. Arthropods and Arthropod borne infections.

Postgraduate modules

Honours Programme (120 credits)

The following is a list of modules offered for the honours programme:

MBY 5501 – Advanced research methodology and seminars
Module Content: Research methodology. Preparation of research proposal. Art of scientific writing. Poster presentation, oral presentation. Statistical methods. Seminars.
Pre-requisite: Successfully completed BSc with Microbiology as major
Assessment Criteria Tests Assignments Seminars
2 2 2


MBY 5502 – Application of immunological concepts and advanced isolation, identification techniques in Immunology
Module Content: Overview of the vertebrate immune system; production and use of monoclonal antibodies; tolerance induction; immunosuppression; immunodeficiencies; autoimmunity; hypersensitivity reactions; blood transfusion and transplantation immunology; application of agglutination, precipitation,complement system and human leucocyte antigen-MHC; enzyme immunoassays; immunoflorescence microscopy; flow cytometry; nucleic acid isolation; reverse transcriptase , multiplex and real time PCR; endonuclease digest analysis; DNA sequencing, editing and bioinformatics; viral infectivity assays; vaccine design, development and evaluation.
Pre-requisite: Successfully completed BSc with Microbiology as major
Assessment Criteria Tests Assignments Seminars
2 2 1-2

MBY 5503 – The role of microorganisms in disease
Module Content: Epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention and control of common bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases including: Staphylococcal ans Streptococcal diseases,anthrax, brucellosis, diarrhea/dysentery, gonococcal and meningococcal infections, syphilis, tuberculosis and leprosy, meningitis, whooping cough, diphtheria, clostridial infections, HIV, viral hepatitis, entero-virus diseases, yellow fever, herpes virus, measles infections, CMV and EBV infections, HPV infections, Lassa fever, Ebola, influenza viral infections, other haemorrhagic fever virus, amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, leishimaniasis, malaria, cryptosporidiosis, schistosomiasis, hookworm, ascariasis, taeniasis, eneterobiasis, onchocerciasis/loasis, dracunculosis, pneumocystis infection and other parasitic diseases, crytococcosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis, ptyiriasis versicolor, scaly cutaneous mycosis, and cutaneous fungal infections. Prions.
Pre-requisite: Successfully completed BSc with Microbiology as major
Assessment Criteria Tests Assignments Seminars
2 2 1-2

MBY 5604 – The role of microorganism in industrial processes
Module Content: Gene loss, amplification and arrangement; lac and galactose operons; gene library; recombination and screening; sequencing; restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and related techniques; restriction mapping; plant biotechnology; fermentation systems; production of antibiotics and antibiotic sensitivity assays. Application of bacteria and fungi in industry. Quality control and quality assurance; intellectual property rights.
Pre-requisite: Successfully completed BSc with Microbiology as major
Assessment Criteria Tests Assignments Seminars
2 2 1-2

MBY 5605 – The role of microorganisms in environment
Module Content: Advanced lecture on different microbes in the environment- soil, aquatic environment, air. Beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms in agriculture. Water and food borne pathogens- bacteria, fungi, parasites. Advanced lecture on indicator organisms. Biogeochemical cycles: (water, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, iron, phosphorous, oxygen). Bioremediation, biofilm formation and significance in bioremediation, corrosion, and disease. Environmental sample collection and identification of organisms. Water treatment- chlorination, chloramination, ozonation, irradiation. Domestic water treatment.
Pre-requisite: Successfully completed BSc with Microbiology as major
Assessment Criteria Tests Assignments Seminars
2 2 1-2

MBY 5700 - Research project and report

Pre-requisite: Successfully completed BSc with Microbiology as major
Assessment Criteria Project write up (mini dissertation) to be externally/internally examined

 Masters Programme (Masters degree is by research only)

MSc students are selected on academic performance and on available space and funds

MBY 6000 – Research project and Seminars
Pre-requisite: Appropriate BSc honours degree with 60% pass rate
Assessment Criteria To be externally/internally examined

2X seminars (one on research topic and one on the results of the study)

Doctoral Programme (Doctoral degree is by research only)

PhD students are selected on academic performance and on available space and funds

MBY 7000 – Research project and Seminars

 Pre-requisite: Appropriate MSc degree

Assessment Criteria Seminar 1

On research topic
Submission of Thesis

Thesis submission for external examination and oral defence

The following is a list of publications and research done by staff members of the Science foundation Department:


Professor Natasha Potgieter

  1. Scientific publications

Potgieter N, Holtzhausen CS, Grundlingh A and Grabow WOK. Evaluation of two methods for the recovery of viruses from water.  SA Med J 1990;79:338.

Potgieter N, Prinsloo N, Swanevelder C and Grabow WOK. Comparison of six cell cultures for the detection of enteric viruses. SA Med J 1990;79:339

Potgieter N, Van Wyngaardt S, Grabow WOK and Verschoor JA.  An anti-coxsackie B1 monoclonal antibody suitable for affinity chromatography. SA J Sci 1997;93:75–80.

Obi CL, Potgieter N, Randima LP, Mavhungu NJ, Musie E, Bessong PO, Mabogo DEN and Mashimbye J.  Antibacterial activitites of five plants against some medically significant human bacteria.  SA J Sci 2001;98:25-8.

Obi CL, Potgieter N, Bessong PO and Matsuang G. Assessment of the microbiological quality of river water sources in rural Venda communities in South Africa.  Water SA 2002;28:287 - 291.

Obi CL, Potgieter N, Bessong PO and Matsuang G. Scope of potential bacterial agents of diarrhoea and microbial assessment of quality of river water sources in rural Venda communities in South Africa.  Wat Sci Tech 2003;47:59 - 64.

AD Steele, I Peenze, MC De Beer, CT Pager, J Yeats, N Potgieter, U Ramsaroop, NA Page, JO Mitchell, A Geyer, P Bos and JJ Alexander.  Anticipating rotavirus vaccines: epidemiology and surveillance of rotavirus in South Africa.  Vaccine 2003;21:354–60.

Obi CL, Potgieter N, Bessong PO, Masebe T and Molobela P.  In-vitro antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants.  SA J Bot 2003;69:1–5.

Obi CL, Potgieter N, Bessong PO, Igumbor EO and Green E.  Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and rotaviruses in stools of patients presenting with diarrhoea from rural communities in Venda, South Africa.  SA J Sci 2003; 99: 589-592.

Steele AD, Ivanoff B, Armah G, Andu R, Esona M, Mbida A, Mwenda J, Muyanga J, Nimzing L, Nyangao J, Pennap G, Potgieter N, Ramsaroop U, Sawadogo S, Sebunya T, Trabelsi A, Tswana AS, Yeats J. Rotavirus strains circulating in Africa during 1996-1999: emergence of G9 strains and P [6] strains. Vaccine 2003; 21: 361-367.

Obi CL, Green E, Bessong PO, De Villiers B, Hoosen AA, Igumbor EO and Potgieter N.  Gene encoding virulence markers among E. coli isolates from diarrhoic stool samples and river water sources in rural Venda communities of South Africa.  Water SA 2004; 30(1):37-42.

Manenzhe NJ, Potgieter N and Van Ree T. Composition and antimicrobial activities of volatile components of Lippia javanica. Phytochemistry 2004; 65: 2333-2336. 

Obi CL, Bessong PO, Momba MM, Potgieter N and Igumbor EO.  Profiles of antibiotic susceptibilities of water isolates and physico-chemical quality of water supply in rural Venda communities.  Water SA 2004; 30 (4): 515-519.

Wright JA, Gundry SW, Genthe B, Du Preez M, Moyo S, Potgieter N and Ndamba J.  Use of handheld computers for collecting water quality data in developing countries. Water International 2004; 29 (4): 517-522.

Potgieter N, Obi Cl, Bessong PO, Igumbor EO, Samie A and Nengobela R.  Bacteriological contamination of vhuswa, a local weaning food, and stored drinking water in impoverished households in the Venda region of South Africa.  J Health, Pop Nutr 2005; 23 (2): 150-155.

Gundry SW, Wright JA,Gundry SW, Conroy R, Du Preez M, Genthe B, Moyo S, Mutisi C, Ndamba J (deceased) and Potgieter N.  Contamination of drinking water between source and point-of-use in rural households of South Africa and Zimbabwe: implications for monitoring the Millennium Development Goal for water. Water, Practice and Technology 2006; 1 (2): 1-9.

Wright JA, Gundry SW, Conroy R, Wood D, Du Preez M, Ferro-Luzzi A, Genthe B, Kirimi M, Moyo S, Mutisi C, Ndamba J (deceased) and Potgieter N.  Defining diarrhoea episodes: results from a 3-country study in sub-Saharan Africa. J Health, Pop Nutr 2006; 24 (1): 18-16.

Makofane HF, Potgieter N, Van Ree T.  Die verbindings en biologiese aktiwiteit van Thamnosma Africana.  SA Tydskr Natuurwet Tegnol 2006; 25 (3): 138-148.

Potgieter N, Mudau LS and Maluleke FRS.  The microbiological quality of ground water sources used by rural communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Water, Science and Technology 2006; 54 (11): 371-377.

Potgieter N, Koekemoer and Jagals P.  A pilot assessment of water, sanitation, hygiene and home-based care services for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural and peri-urban communities in South Africa.  Water, Science and Technology 2007; 56 (5): 125-131.

Igumbor  EO, Obi CL, Bessong PO, Potgieter N and Mkasi TC.  Microbiological contamination of banknotes circulating in the Venda region of the Limpopo Province. SA Journal of Science 2007; 103(9/10):365-367.

Du Preez M, le Roux W, Potgieter N and Venter SN.   The genetic relatedness of E. coli associated with post-collection drinking water contamination in rural households.  Water SA 2008; 34(1):107-111

Du Preez M, Conroy RM, Wright JA, Moyo S, Potgieter N and Gundry SW.  The use of ceramic water filtration in the prevention of diarrhoeal disease: a controlled trial in rural South Africa and Zimbabwe. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Health 2008; 79(5): 696-701

Wright J, Gundry SW, Conroy R, Du Preez M, Genthe B, Moyo S and Potgieter N.  Child dysentery in the Limpopo Valley: a cohort study of water, sanitation, and hygiene risk factors.   Journal of Water and Health 2009; 7(2):259-66.

Potgieter N, Becker PJ and Ehlers MM. Evaluation of the CDC safe water-storage intervention to improve the microbiological quality of point-of-use drinking water in rural communities in South Africa.  Water SA 2009; 35(4):1-12

Omar KB, Potgieter N and Barnard TG.  Development of a rapid screening method for the detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli using a combination of Colilert Quanti-Trays/2000 and PCR. Water Science and Technology 2010; 10(1):7-13

Keshav V, Potgieter N and Barnard TG.  Detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 in animal stools collected in rural areas of the Limpopo Province.  Water SA 2010; 36(2): 167-171.

Mieta SIK, Potgieter N, Sobsey MD and Barnard TG.  Optimisation of methods for the collection and detection of bacterial pathogens from diarrhoeal human faecal samples using a novel stool collection kit. Water SA 2010; 36(2): 159-166.

Ntema, VM, Potgieter, N, Barnard, TG.  Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus by molecular and culture based methods from source water to household container-stored water at the point-of-use in South African rural communities.  2010. Water Science and Technology 61(12):3091-3101.

Potgieter N, De Beer M, Taylor MB and Steele AD. The prevalence and diversity of rotavirus strains in children with acute diarrhoea from rural communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. J Infectious Diseases 2010; Sep 1(202) Suppl:S148-155

Page N, Esona M, Armah G, Nyangao J, Mwenda J, Sebunya T, Basu G, Pyndiah N, Potgieter N, Geyer A and Steele AD. Emergence and Characterization of Serotype G9 Rotavirus Strains from across the African Continent.  J Infectious Diseases 2010; Sep 1(202) Suppl:S55-63

Barnard TG, Robertson CA, Jagals P and  Potgieter N.  A rapid and low-cost DNA extraction method for isolating pathogenic Escherichia coli DNA from animal stools.  2011.  African Journal of Biotechnology 2011; 10(8): 1485-1490.

Nare L, Odiyo JO, Francis J and Potgieter N.  Framework for Effective Community Participation in Water Quality Management in Luvuvhu Catchment of South Africa. 2011 Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 2011; 36(14-15): 1063-1070.


  1. Books - None
  2. Book chapters

Ehlers MM, Sundram A, Kock MM and Potgieter N (2007).  Microbial and chemical assays to determine the origin of faecal pollution and the presence of waterborne pathogens.  Chapter 4: In: Environmental Microbiology Research Trends.  Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York.  ISBN: 978-1-60021-939-9.  Pp.137-166.

Natasha Potgieter, Tendayi B. Mpofu and Tobias G. Barnard.  (2011). The Impact Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Infrastructures Have on People Living with HIV and AIDS in Zimbabwe.  Microbes, Viruses and Parasites in AIDS Process, Vladimír Zajac (Ed.).  ISBN: 978-953-307-601-0.  Intech Open Access Publishers, Inc. Croatia.  Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-impact-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-infrastructures-have-on-people-living-with-hiv-and-aids-in-zimbabwe.

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Dr Amidou Samie

  1. Scientific publications

Elbakri A, Samie A, Ezzedine S, Odeh RA (2013).  Differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii in fecal samples by nested PCR in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Acta Parasitol. 58(2):185-90. doi: 10.2478/s11686-013-0128-8.

Nyakudya TT, Oscar T, Samie A, Chivandi E, Erlwanger KH, Gundidza M, Magwa ML, and P. Muredzi P (2012). Physicochemical characterization of the hexanic seed oil extract from the pepper tree (Schinus molle) of South African origin. African Journal of Biotechnology. 12(8), pp. 854-859

Samie A, Nefefe T, Gundidza M, Mmbengwa V, Magwa M, Mtshali M.S (2012). Antimicrobial activities and time kill profiles of five essential oils from Southern Africa against selected bacterial and fungal organisms. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 6(44), pp. 3086-3095.
          
Kosek M, Haque R, Lima A, Babji S, Shrestha S, Qureshi S, Amidou Samie, Mduma E, Lee G, Yori PP, Guerrant RL, Bhutta Z, Mason C, Kang G, Kabir M, Amour C, Bessong P, Turab A, Seidman J, Olortegui MP, Lang D, Gratz J, Miller M, Gottlieb M; for the MAL-ED network (2012). Fecal Markers of Intestinal Inflammation and Permeability Associated with the Subsequent Acquisition of Linear Growth Deficits in Infants. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Nov 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Samie A, Nefefe T, Gundidza M, Mmbengwa V, Magwa M (2012). Antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Southern Africa against selected bacterial and fungal organisms. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11(89), pp. 15560-15568.

Samie A, Mashao MB, Bessong PO, NKgau TF, Momba MNB , Obi CL (2012). Diversity and antibiograms of bacterial organisms isolated from household drinking water samples consumed by HIV positive individuals in rural settings in Limpopo province, South Africa. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition. 30(3):241-249.

Samie A, Nkgau TF, Bessong PO, Obi CL, Dillingham R and Guerrant RL (2012). Escherichia coli pathotypes and biofilm production from clinical and water samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected patients in Limpopo Province, South Africa. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 6(31): 6022-6030.

Samie A and Nkgau TF (2012). Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli isolates from HIV and AIDS patients in the Limpopo Province. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(34): 8560-8570.

Uaboi-Egbenni PO, Bessong PO, Samie A and Obi CL (2012).      Potentially pathogenic Campylobacter species among farm animals in     rural areas of Limpopo province, South Africa: A case study of chickens and cattles. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 6 (12): 2835-2843

Samie A, Mashao MB (2012). Spectrum and drug resistance of respiratory yeast infections among HIV infected patients with tuberculosis in South Africa. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 6(2): 257-266.

Samie A, Nefefe T (2012). Antifungal activities of essential oils from Southern African medicinal plants against five Fusarium species. Journal of Medicinal plants Research. 6(3): 465 – 478.

Samie A, Shivambu N (2011). Molecular detection of methicillin resistance gene (mec A gene) and pathogenic genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical and water samples of HIV and AIDS patients in Limpopo Province, South Africa. African Journal of Microbiology research. Vol. 5(30), pp. 5498-5506

Samie A and Shivambu N (2011). Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from HIV and AIDS patients in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(65): 14625-14636.

Uaboi-Egbenni PO, Bessong PO, Samie A and Obi CL (2011). Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter jejuni and coli isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic goat faeces in Venda region, South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(64): 14116-14124.

Njume C, Afolayan AJ, Samie A, and Ndip RN (2011). Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential of Crude Acetone Extracts of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) on Drug-resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition. 29(5):438-445.

Adefuye AO, Samie A and Ndip RN (2011). In-vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts of Bridelia micrantha on selected bacterial pathogens. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(20): 5116-5122.

Njume C, Afolayan AJ, Samie A and Ndip RN (2011). In-vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Combretum molle (Combretaceae). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(14): 3210-3216.

Gundidza M, Mmbengwa V, Sibambo SR, Magwa ML, Mushisha O, Benhura MA, E. Gundidza E and Samie A (2011). Rheological, moisture and ash content analyses of a gum resin from Commiphora Africana. African Journal of Food Science. 5(4): 188 – 193.
           
Gundidza M, Mmbengwa V, Sibambo SR, Magwa ML, Mushisha O, Gundidza E and Samie A (2011). Analysis of a gum from the exudates of Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Am. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10 (33): 6241-6245.

Rebecca Dillingham, Paul Leger, Erica Miller, Angela Kashuba, Naser Rezk, Kathryn Dupnik, Amidou Samie, Etna Eyma, Richard Guerrant, Jean Pape, and Daniel Fitzgerald (2011). AIDS Diarrhea and Antiretroviral Drug Absorption. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 84(6): 878–882.
            
Green E, Obi CL, Samie A, Bessong PO and Ndip RN (2011). Characterization of n-Hexane fraction of Bridelia micrantha (Berth) and its anti- mycobacterium activity. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.11 (28): doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-28

Samie A, Makonto TE, Odiyo J, Ouaboi-Egbenni PO, Mojapelo P, Bessong PO (2011). Microbial quality, diversity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacterial isolates from borehole water used by schools in Greater Giyani Municipality, Mopani District, South Africa. African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol 5 (3):198 - 210.

Uaboi-Egbenni PO, Bessong PO, Samie A and Obi CL (2011). Campylobacteriosis in pigs in farm Settlements in the Vhembe district of South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 10 (4), pp. 703-711.

Uaboi-Egbenni PO, Bessong PO, Samie A and Obi CL (2010). Campylobacteriosis in sheep in farm settlements in the Vhembe district of South Africa. African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4(20), pp. 2109-2117.            

Samra NA, Jori F, Samie A, Thompson P (2010). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in wild mammals in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Vet. Parasitol. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.10.004           

Samie A, Nchachi DJ, Obi CL and Igumbor EO (2010). Prevalence and temporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infections in the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(42): 7157-7164.          

Okeleye BI, Samie A, Bessong PO, Mkwetshana NF, Green E, Clarke AM and Ndip RN (2010). Crude ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Peltophorum africanum (Sond, Fabaceae) possessing in vitro inhibitory and bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4(14): 1432-1440, Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR           

James Heckman, Amidou Samie, Pascal Bessong, Mmboniseni Ntsieni, Hassan Hamandi, Matthew Kohler, Benjamin Milam, Jessica Scriver, Rebecca Dillingham (2010). Anaemia among clinically well under-fives attending a community health centre in Venda, Limpopo Province. South African Medical Journal. 100: 445-448.

Mmbengwa VM, Gundidza BM, Greyling JPC, Fair MD, Schwalbach LMJ, J.E.J. du Toit JEJ, and  Samie A (2010).  Serum progesterone as an indicator of cyclic activity in post-partum goat does.  South African Journal of Animal Science 2009, 39 (Supplement 1): 306 – 311

Ezekiel Green, Amidou Samie, Larry C. Obi, Pascal O. Bessong, Roland N. Ndip (2010). Inhibitory properties of selected South African medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130: 151–15.         

Samie A, Tambani T, Harshfield E, Green E, Ramalivhana JN, Bessong PO (2010). Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against Candida albicans Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from South African AIDS patients. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9 (20): 2965-2976.
            
Ramalivhana JN, Obi CL, Samie A, Labuschagne C, and Weldhagen G F (2010). Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Typing of Clinical and Environmental Aeromonas hydrophila strains from the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition. 28 (1): 1-6.
           
Samie A, Barrett LJ, Bessong PO, Ramalivhana JN, Mavhandu LG, Njayou M, Guerrant RL (2010). Seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in the context of HIV and AIDS: Case of the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 104 (1): 55–63.

Gundidza M, Gweru N, Magwa ML and Mmbengwa V and Samie A (2009). The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius from Zimbabwe. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (24): 7164-7169.
           
Gundidza MG, Mmbengwa VM, Magwa ML, Ramalivhana NJ, Mukwevho NT, Ndaradzi W and Samie A (2009). Aphrodisiac properties of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants formulations. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8 (22): 6402-6407.         

Samie A, Obi CL, Igumbor J, Momba MNB (2009). Focus On Fourteen Sewage Treatment Plants in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa In Order to Gauge The Efficiency of Waste Water Treatment. African Journal of Biotechnology 8 (14):  3286-3293.

Samie A, Guerrant RL, Barrett L, Bessong PO,  Igumbor EO , Obi CL (2009). Prevalence of intestinal parasitic and bacterial pathogens in diarrheal and nondiarreal human stools from the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 27 (6):739-745.

Samie A, Housein A, Lall N, Meyer JJ (2009). Crude extracts of, and purified compounds from, Pterocarpus angolensis, and the essential oil of Lippia javanica: their in-vitro cytotoxicities and activities against selected bacteria and Entamoeba histolytica. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 103(5):427-39.
            
Gundiza M, Gweru N, Magwa ML, Ramalivhana NJ, Humphrey G, Samie A and Mmbengwa V (2009). Phytochemical composition and biological activities of essential oil of Rhynchosia minima (L) (DC) (Fabaceae). African Journal of Biotechnology 8(5): 721-724.

Mmbengwa V, Samie A, Gundidza M, Matikiti V, Ramalivhana NJ, Magwa ML (2009). Biological Activity and phytoconstituents of Essential Oil from Fresh Leaves of Eriosema englerianum. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(3): 361-364.
           
Samie A, Obi CL, Lall N, Meyer JJ (2009). In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of local medicinal plants from Venda, in South Africa, against clinical isolates of Campylobacter species and Entamoeba histolytica. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 103(2):159-70.

Gundidza M, Gweru N, Mmbengwa V, Ramalivhana NJ, Magwa Z, Samie A (2008) Phytoconstituents and Biological Activities of Essential Oil from Rhus Lancea L.F. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(16): 2787-2789.
            
Obi CL, Igumbor JO, Momba MNB and Samie A (2008). Interplay of Factors Involving Chlorine Dose, Turbidity, Flow Capacity and pH On Microbial Quality of Drinking water In Small Water Treatment Plants. Water SA. 34 (5): 565 – 572.

Samie A, Obi CL, Franaziak J, Archbald-Pannone L, Bessong PO, Alcantara-Warren C,  Guerrant RL (2008). PCR detection of Clostridium difficile triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), toxin A (tcdA), toxin B (tcdB), binary toxin (cdtA, cdtB) and tcdC genes in Vhembe district, South Africa: American Journal Of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 78: 577-585.
            
Samie A, Obi CL, Stroup S, Houpt E, Njayou M, Sabeta CT, Mduluza T, Guerrant RL (2008). Genetic diversity of Entamoeba histolytica from Africa based on the serine- rich gene polymorphism. Experimental Parasitology. 118(3):354-61.

Samie A, Obi CL, Dillingham R, Pinkerton RC, Guerrant RL. (2007) Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli in Venda, South Africa: Distribution of Virulence-Related Genes by Multiplex PCR in Stool Samples of HIV Positive and HIV Negative Individuals and Primary School Children. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 77(1): 142-150.
           
Samie A, Ramalivhana J, Igumbor EO, Obi CL. (2007). Prevalence, Hemolytic and Hemagglutination Activities and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Campylobacter spp Isolated from Human Diarrheal Stools in the Vhembe District, South Africa. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 25 (4): 406 - 413.

Parr JB, Sevilleja JE, Samie A, Alcantara C, Stroup SE, Fayer R, Houpt ER, Guerrant RL. (2007) Detection and Quantification of Cryptosporidium parvum in HCT-8 Cells and Human Fecal Specimens using Real-time PCR. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76: 938-942.
           
Obi CL, Momba MNB, Samie A, Igumbor JO, Green E and Musie E (2007). Microbiological, physico-chemical and management parameters impinging on the efficiency of small water treatment plants in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa Water SA Vol. 33 No. 2 :229 – 237.

Obi CL., Ramalivhana J., Samie A, Igumbor EO. (2007) Prevalence, Pathogenesis, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Aeromonas Isolates from Stool Samples of Patients in the Venda Region of South Africa: A Preliminary Report. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 25 (4): 428 – 435.
            
Samie A, Obi CL, Tzipori S, Weiss LM, Guerrant RL. (2007). Microsporidiosis in South Africa: PCR detection in stool samples of HIV positive and HIV negative individuals and school children in the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg 101(6):547-54.

Samie A., Obi CL, Barrett LJ, Powell SM, Guerrant RL (2007). Prevalence of Campylobacter species, Helicobacter pylori and Arcobacter species in stool samples from the Venda region, Limpopo, South Africa: Studies using molecular diagnostic methods, Journal of Infection. 54(6): 558-66.
           
Samie A, Njayou M, Bessong PO, Obi CL, Mouchili F, Tuikue Ndam NG, Sabeta CT, and Mduluza T. (2006). Use of an immuno-peroxidase staining method for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in stool samples in endemic areas. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnolology 2: 10 – 18.

Samie A, Obi LC, Bessong PO,  Stroup S, Houpt E, Guerrant RL (2006) Prevalence And Species Distribution of E. Histolytica And E. dispar In The Venda Region, Limpopo, South Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 75(3): 565-71.
          
Samie A, Bessong PO, Obi CL, Sevilleja JEAD, Stroup S, Houpt E, Guerrant RL (2006) Cryptosporidium species: Preliminary descriptions of the prevalence and genotype distribution among school children and hospital patients in the Venda region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Experimental Parasitology. 114: 314 – 322.

Steiner TS, Samie A, Guerrant RL, (2006). Infectious Diarrhea:  New Pathogens and New Challenges in Developed and Developing Areas. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 43(4): 408-10.

Samie A., Obi C.L., Bessong P.O. Namrita L. (2005) Activity profiles of fourteen selected medicinal plants from Rural Venda communities in South Africa against fifteen clinical bacterial species. African Journal of Biotechnology 4 (12): 1443-1451.
           
Samie A, Mduluza T., Sabeta C.T., Njayou M., Bessong P.O. and Obi C. L. (2005) Detection    and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar from clinical samples by PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnolology. 5:3–9.

Potgieter N., Obi C.L., Bessong P.O., Igumbor E.O., Samie A. and Nengovhela R. (2005).  Bacteriological contamination of Vhuswa - A local weaning food and stored drinking water in impoverished households in the Venda region of South Africa. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition. 23 (2): 150-155.

CL Obi, PO Bessong, MNB Momba, N Potgieter, A Samie and EO Igumbor (2004). Profiles of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial isolates and physico-chemical quality of water supply in rural Venda communities, South Africa. Water SA 30 (4): 515-519.

  1. Book - None
  2. Book chapters

Aldo AM Lima, Amidou Samie, Richard Guerrant (2010). Cryptosporidiosis. In: Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, and Practice. RL Guerrant, DH Walker, PF Weller (Eds). 3rd Edition. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier Publishers, Ireland. ISBN 0-443-06668-X. Pp 852-883.

Samie A, Bessong PO, Obi CL, Dillingham R, Guerrant RL (2011). Bacterial and parasitic agents of infectious diarrhoea in the Era of HIV and AIDS: the case of a semi rural community in South Africa. Microbes, Viruses and Parasites in AIDS Process. ISBN 978-953-308-84-2. Intech open access Publishers.Samie A., ElBakri A. and AbuOdeh (2012). Amoebiasis in the tropics: Epidemiology and pathogenesis, In Current Topics in Tropical Medicine ISBN 978-953-307-877-9. Intech open access Publishers.

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Dr Edgar Musie

  1. Scientific publications

Obi CL, Potgieter N, Randima LP, Mavhungu NJ, Musie E, Bessong PO, Mabogo DEN and Mashimbye J. Antibacterial activitites of five plants against some medically significant human bacteria. SA J Sci 2001;98:25-8.

Obi CL, Potgieter N, Randima LP, Mavhungu NJ, Musie E, Bessong PO, Mabogo DEN, Mashimbye J (2001). Antibacterial activities of Datura stramonium, Zanthoxylum davyi, Securidaca longependiculata against selected bacteria of medical importance. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 17(Suppl 1):S125.

Obi CL, Potgieter N, Randima LP, Mavhungu NJ, Musie E, Bessong PO, Mabogo DEN and Mashimbye J.  Antibacterial activitites of five plants against some medically significant human bacteria.  SA J Sci 2001;98:25-8.

  1. Book - None
  2.  Book chapters - None

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Dr Tracy Masebe

  1. Scientific publications

Masebe TM, Bessong PO, Nwobegahay J, Ndip and Meyer D. Prevalence of MDR1 C3435T and CYP2B6 G516T polymorphisms among HIV-1 infected South African patients. Disease Markers Journal. 2012; 32(1):43-50.

Iweriebor BC, Mavhandu LG, Masebe T, Rekosh D, Hammarskjold ML, Mphahlele JM, Bessong PO. Molecular epidemiology of HIV in two highly endemic areas of north-eastern South Africa. Archives of Virology. 2012; 157(3):455-65.

Nwobegahay JM, Bessong PO, Masebe TM, Mavhandu LG, Iweriebor BC, Selabe G. Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations and HIV-I subtypes among newly-diagnosed drug-naïve persons visiting a voluntary testing and counselling centre in north-eastern South Africa. J Health Popul Nutr. 2011; 29(4):303-9.

Julius Nwobegahay, Pascal Bessong, Tracy Masebe, Lufuno Mavhandu, Cecile Manhaeve, Norbert Ndjeka, Gloria Selabe. Prevalence of drug-resistant mutations in newly diagnosed drug-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals in a treatment site in the Waterberg District, Limpopo province. South African Medical Journal, 2011 101(5):335-7.

Iweriebor BC, Bessong PO, Mavhandu LG, Masebe TM, Nwobegahay J, Moyo SR, Mphahlele JM. Genetic analysis of the near full-length genome of an HIV type 1 A1/C unique recombinant form from northern South Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011; 27(8):911-5.

Andros Theo, Tracy Masebe, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Haruhisa Kikuchi, Shoko Wada, Chikwelu Larry Obi, Pascal Obong Bessong, Motoki Usuzawa, Yoshiteru Oshima and Toshio Hattori. Peltophorum Africanum, a Traditional South African Medicinal Plant, Contains an Anti HIV-1 Constituent, Betulinic Acid. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2009; 217 (2):93-99.

Pascal Obong Bessong, Benson Chuks Iweriebor, Lufuno Grace Mavhandu, Tracy Masebe and Julius Nwobegahay. Tools for genotyping human immunodeficiency virus, and implications of genetic diversity on diagnostics, treatment and prevention. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7 (25):4774-4783.

CL Obi, N Potgieter, PO Bessong, T Masebe, H Mathebula and P Molobela. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Venda Medicinal Plants. South African Journal of Botany. 2002; (69):199 – 203.

  • Books - None
  •  Book chapters - None

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1 Antimicrobial/Active components potentials of traditional Medicinal plants
2 Water Quality Assessment
3 HIV/AIDS Research
4 Streptococcus pneumonia Research
5 Parasitology Research
6 Diarrhoeal Pathogens Research

The following is a list of staff members in the Departmen of Microbiology:

Designation Name Contact Details
HOD Prof Natasha Potgieter

BSc Biological sciences (RAU), BSc Hons Medical
Virology(UP), MSc Medical Virology (UP), PhD
Medical Virology (UP)
Tel: +27 15 962 8256
Email: natasha.potgieter@univen.ac.za
Senior Lecturer Dr Amidou Samie

BSc Biochemistry, MSc Biochemistry (Yaounde), PhD
Microbiology (Univen)
Tel: +27 15 962 8186
Email: samie.amidou@univen.ac.za
Senior Lecturer Dr Safi Traore

DEUG B. Biologie (UJF, Grenoble I ; France)
Licence & Maitrise Biochimie (UJF, Grenoble I ; France)
MSc Biochemistry (RAU)
PhD. Biochemistry (UJ)

Tel:
Email: Afsatou.Traore@univen.ac.za
Lecturer Dr Edgar Musie

MSc Microbiology, PhD Microbiology (Univen)
Tel: +27 15 962 8460
Email: edgar.musie@univen.ac.za
Lecturer Dr Tracy Masebe

MSc Microbiology, PhD Microbiology (Univen)
Tel: +27 15 962 8474
Email: tracy.masebe@univen.ac.za
Part Time Lecturer Ms Muendi Phadagi

BSc Microbilogy, BSc Hons Microbiology (UKZN)
MSc Microbiology (Univen)
Tel: +27 76 280 3208
Email: muendi.sigidi@yahoo.com
Part Time Lecturer Mr Sammy Mathebula

BSc Microbiology, BSc Hons Microbiology
(Univen)
Tel: +27 72 267 9477
Email: sammy.nduna@gmail.com