• The town of Musina in Limpopo was brought to a standstill in early May 2022 as protesters took to the streets to demand a consistent water supply.
  • Water supply to Musina is the responsibility of the Vhembe District Municipality.
  • Schools and shops were closed and protesters blocked streets.
  • Police were out in force in Nyalas using rubber bullets. Protesters threw stones at the police.


In an interview with Capricorn FM, Univen law academic Mr Sithuga indicated that section 205 of the Constitution of Republic of South Africa, 1996, empowers police officers to prevent, combat and investigate crime, maintain public order, protect and secure the inhabitants of the Republic and their property, and to uphold and enforce the law.


Mr. Sithuga indicated that the police displayed gross negligence in the shooting incident that happened during the May 2022 protests in Musina. A 15-year-old girl was allegedly shot with live ammunition by the police after they reportedly ran out of rubber bullets. In a separate incident, a 16-year-old boy was allegedly shot in the eye with a rubber bullet. Mr. Sithuga indicated that the police were negligent in not taking enough rubber bullets with them and not deploying enough police officers in Musina. He further indicated that police officers are not allowed to use live ammunition during protests. The mother of the 16-year-old boy who was shot in the eye has indicated that the police refused to open a case, arguing that this would victimize the boy; but Mr. Sithuga said that refusing to open the case amounts to defeating the ends of justice. This also indicates that police stations provide poor service delivery in their workplace.


As an expert, Mr. Sithuga is a regular voice on local radio networks where he provides insightful analysis on various topics such as policing, Criminology, corrections, and victimology.

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